Tuesday, November 29, 2011

HOT SPOT DXING - Tehran, Iran

This morning's announcement of Iranian students storming the British embassy in Tehran, warrants additional monitoring from Iran's V.O.I.R.I. on shortwave radio.

Iranian Protestors Storm British Embassy
TEHRAN (Reuters) - Iranian protesters stormed two British Embassy compounds in Tehran Tuesday, smashing windows, hurling petrol bombs and burning the British flag in a protest against sanctions imposed by Britain, live Iranian television showed.

Iran's semi-official Mehr news agency said protesters took six British diplomatic staff hostage from an embassy compound in the north of the city but it withdrew the story from its website minutes later without giving any explanation.

The attacks followed the rapid approval by Iran's Guardian Council of a parliamentary bill compelling the government to expel the British ambassador in retaliation for the sanctions. A lawmaker had also warned Sunday that angry Iranians could storm the British Embassy as they did the U.S. mission in 1979.

Additional story at:

Iran, VOIRI/IRIB - Updated version from Nov 15 - Winter B11

Effective: to 25 March 2012

All times UTC

0630-0727 on 13810 15500
1830-1927 on 6085 9760
2030-2127 on 6165 9760

0230-0527 on 7350 9740 9895
0330-0427 on 7295 9500 "Voice of Palestine"
0530-0827 on 13690 15735 17820
0830-1027 on 13740 13790 15735 17820
1030-1427 on 13790 15735 17670
1430-1627 on 9830 17670
1630-1727 on 6065 9830
1730-2027 on 6065 7335
2030-0227 on 6065

0300-0327 on 5915 7300
0930-0957 on 11820 15220
1630-1727 on 5915 7435

0330-0527 on 6200
1430-1657 on 6200

0030-0127 on 5915 6100
0830-0927 on 13680
1430-1527 on 7320 9730 11805

0530-0627 on 13760 15500
1730-1827 on 6030 9850
2130-2227 on 5950 9710

1200-1257 on 13825 15150 15360 15525
2330-0027 on 5955 6110 7380

0300-0627 on 9805 11860
0830-1157 on 13840 15545
1200-1427 on 11640 13840
1430-1457 on 11640

0330-0427 on 7200 7365 "Voice of Justice"
1030-1127 on 21575 21695
1530-1627 on 13785 15525
1930-2027 on 6010 #6115 7320 13670 15450

0730-0827 on 15085 17690
1730-1827 on 6205 #7420 7425

0630-0727 on 17560 17865
1830-1927 on 6055 #6115 7380 15345

0600-0657 on 17810
1130-1157 on 21480 21800
1830-1927 on 11965 13730

0430-0457 on 9755 11870
1200-1227 on 13740 15515

0230-0257 on 9510 11710
1430-1527 on 11700 13750

1230-1327 on 17720 21630
2230-2327 on 7380 9675

0630-0727 on 13650 15085 (9770 SIT deleted)
1930-1957 on 5890 7215

1330-1427 on 9585 9625
2100-2157 on 6145 7200

0130-0227 on 7205 7265
1530-1627 on 7380 9540 9850

0430-0527 on 7370 9610
1330-1627 on 5920

0230-0327 on 5950 6095
0730-0827 on 13720 15440
1230-1327 on 7225 9725
1430-1527 on 5985
1630-1727 on 6005 7345

0300-0327 on 7370 9510
0500-0527 on 12025 13680 17680 21600
1430-1527 on 7285 9685 11860 (7420 SIT deleted)
1700-1757 on 3965 6090
1800-1857 on 6130 7305
1930-2027 on 4005 7205

0030-0227 on 6010 7345
0230-0327 on 6010
0530-0627 on 13710 15330
2030-2127 on 5930 9630 (6055 SIT deleted)

0400-0457 on 13680 15260
0830-0927 on 21510 21640
1730-1827 on 9830 11715

0100-0227 on 5950 7300
1600-1727 on 5955 7295

0430-0557 on 6085 7360
1600-1727 on 6175 7315

0130-0227 on 3965 6100 6185
1300-1427 on 9715 11685 11720
1530-1727 on 6115

0230-0257 on 6175 7300
1500-1557 on 6070 7215
# via Sitkunai,Lithuania
(DX Mix News 703 via Alokesh Gupta, India)

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Blog Logs

great sampling of what DXers are hearing on the shortwave bands...let us know what you're hearing at your listening post ...

Logs edited for clarity

// parallel frequency - *sign-on / sign-off*

All times UTC

5952.552, Emisoras Pio XII, 0005-0015. Lot's of man made noise here, but could hear the audio under it, with a male in Spanish language comments. The noise is too great to overcome and hear the comments clearly however. The noise signal is on 5955 kHz exactly. It's possibly a signal from a dysfunctional transmitter? (Chuck Bolland, FL)

6134.83, Radio Santa Cruz, *0859-0925. Station sign on with choral music and Spanish talk. Flute interval signal at 0901 and opening Spanish ID announcements. Santa Cruz song at 0903 followed by local pop music. Fair. (Brain Alexander, PA)

4865.054, Radio Verdes Florestas, (presumed) 1010-1020. Observed steady religious music with lyrics in Portuguese. Presuming this to be Florestas based on frequency and language. Signal was poor the entire period. (Chuck Bolland, FL)

5990, Radio Senado, 0805-0830. Local music. Portuguese announcements. ID. Fair to good. (Brian Alexander, PA)

6135, Radio Aparecida, 0938-0955. Portuguese language including latin American musical ballads and announcer's talk. Signal fair-poor //5035-poor. (Scott Barbour, NH)

15189.90 Radio Inconfidencia, 0001. Station ID in portuguese by male announcer into broadcast schedule. Pre-ID, flutttery signal had me thinking this station was propagating via trans-polar path. (Chuck Rippel, VA/Cumbre DX)

4885, Radio Clube do Para 0419-0425. Portuguese station ID by male announcer. Format of slow tempo pop ballads. Poor signal quality. (Joe Wood, TN).

6165, RN Tchadienne (N’Djamena). *0427-0449. French sign-on with national anthem and ID. Male announcer with program of African music and US Blues. Much of the indigenous music featured the “Thumb Piano.” Fair signal (Joe Wood, TN)

9525, China Radio International, 1501-1515. Looking for Indonesia but only hear China in English with news. IDs. Business news. Poor on noisy conditions. (Brian Alexander, PA)

5050, Beibu Bay Radio, Nanning 1427 Chinese. Man and woman with “B-B-R” IDs, mention of FM frequency. Chinese pop music, 1430 English ID “This is Guangui, Beibu Bay Radio.” and Chinese announcements and talk. Fair-good. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

4940, Voice of Strait, Fuzhou 1501 English. “Focus on China”, man and woman with news items about China to 1528 ID, address and phone number, then into Chinese. Good. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

4950, Voice Pujiang, Shanghai 1511 Chinese. Man and woman, Western pop songs in English. Fair, //3280 fair-good, 5075 good with some distortion. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

5910, Alcaravan Radio Peurto Lleres 0816-0832. Spanish announcer with brief talk between Latin American music selections. SIgnal was fair. (Scott Barbour, NH)

9705, Radio Ethiopia, *0258-0315. Sign-on with station interval signal and opening announcements. National anthem at 0259. Signal chimes at 0300 and into Amharic talk. Some Horn of Africa music. Fair signal. (Brian Alexander, PA)

15380, Radio Ashna via Wertachtal, 15380 in Pashto at 1430 to 1500., Station ID at 1430, then news. Reception only fair due to echo presumed to be multi-path reception. Multi-path reception from Germany isn’t unusual in the mornings at my location, but strong signals via both paths, as was the case today, is very unusual. (Wendel Craighead, KS)

4055, Radio Verdad, 0550-0607.* Religious music. Christmas music. Closing multi-lingual ID announcements at 0555. Sign off with national anthem at 0602. Poor in

3250, Radio Luz y Vida San Luis 1120-1133 Nov. Spanish program including lite music to male announcer's ID at 1130 UTC. Lady announcer at 1132 and signal rapidly fade out. (Scott Barbour, NH)

4880 AIR Lucknow(presumed) 1330-1350. Talk in presumed Hindi to 1336, then ads or program notes. Announcer to 1345, then sub-continental vocal music. Fair signal but no match for the band noise. (John Wilkins, CO/Cumbre DX)

4860, AIR Delhi 0127. Hindi service for male/female announcers with talk and Indian vocal music to 0130. Signal weak and poor. (Scott Barbour, NH)

9470, AIR National Channel, Aligarh 1533 English. Woman with news, battling it out with Voice of Russia also on this frequency in English, but AIR was dominant. Poor. (Harold Sellers, Canada)
3325 RRI Palangkaraya 1351-1410. Male/female announcers chatting, with one song played. Six signal pips to 1400:56, then two reps of organ interval signal - then six more pips to 1401:32. More talk followed but signal fading by now. (John Wilkins, CO/Cumbre DX)


13785, V.O.I.R.I. 1537 English. Man with program lineup, 1539 news, //15525. On Nov 10 both freqs were heard with interference and 13785 was poor because of the interference. Today there was no interference on either. Fair. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

11600, Radio-Télévision Libye, 1700-1806.* Audible after Radio Bulgaria’s DRM broadcast sign off at 1700. French talk. Many music bridges of “Douce France” song. Classical music. IDs as Radio-Télévision Libye - Radio Libye de la capital Tripoli.” Poor in noisy conditions at 1700 but improved to a fair level by 1710. (Brian Alexander, PA)

5010.18, Radio Madagasikara, 0218-0235. Local choral music. Short 20 second interval signal at 0226 followed by choral national anthem. Opening ID announcements at 0228:30. Malagasy talk. Local music. Fair. Still broadcasting in AM mode. (Brian Alexaner, PA)

New Zealand
5950, Radio NZI 1319. News from Pacific islands. (Good signal. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

9704.98 La Voix du Sahel(presumed) 0537-0544. Sub-Saharan music with unique vocals and instruments. Tuned out at 0544. Fair signal. (John Wilkins, CO/Cumbre DX)

15120, Voice of Nigeria 1540 English. Story on the illegal trade of rhino horn. Fair-good. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

15140 Radio Sultanate of Oman 1359-1500. Pop music program with male/female hosting. Signal of Big Ben-type chimes at 1429, then time check for "6:30" and regional news, beginning with headlines. Many datelines from Oman, Pakistan, and Iran. Female announcer with brief story reading 1444-1457. Good at tune-in but had deteriorated by 1457. Did note chimes again at 1500. (John Wilkins, CO/Cumbre DX)

4774.95, Radio Tarma, 1016-1030. Noted at tune-in, steady music. Announcer's talk-over the music. Signal fair. (Chuck Bolland,FL)

4789.941, Radio Vision, 1000-1015. Noted a single male in religious discourse with an occasional period of chanting in gibberish. Signal is poor but still audible.
(Chuck Bolland, FL)

4940.014, Radio San Antonio, 0955-1005. Noted a carrier here prior to 0957. At 0957 a female's Spanish comments began to fade in. Audio very weak amid Spanish programming. (Chuck Bolland, FL)

5039.226, Radio Libertad, 1000-1010. Noted this station without any interference
here for the time being. Program consisted announcer's Spanish comments. Station's signal fair as comments continued to 1005 when music was presented. (Chuck Bolland, FL)

9430, FEBC Bocaue 1108-1117, English/Chinese with male announcer in English regarding film "The Sound of Music. Female announcer in Chinese translation to music from the same film. Website URL at 1113 that I couldn't fully copy and Manila contact info. Male/female announcers to 1115 with talk. Phone number quotee over the music. Good signal. (Scott Barbour, NH)

9555, VOA relay, 1344 Korean. English language lesson. Fair. (Harold Sellers, Canada)

5940, Radio Rossii Arman 0834-0845. male/female announcre duo over music. Signal fair in Russian. Female announcer over music. Noted as fair; //5930 Petro K`-poor. (Scott Barbour, NH)

Solomon Islands
5019.9v, SIBC Honiara 1144-1204.* Island music in Portguese and English between selections, sounds like taking listener requests. Music bits and female announcer at at 1202 followed by Brazilian national anthem. Signal poor but audible when 5025-Rebelde not playing music. (Scott Barbour, NH)

Sri Lanka
11905 SLBC 0042-0115. Sub-continental vocals and quaint accordion tunes. Male announcer spoke occasionally, not sure of language. Good signal for a while but had weakened considerably by 0230. (John Wilkins, CO/Cumbre DX)

9725 Radio Thailand *1400-1414. "Eight PM News Magazine" with news to 1405, then assorted talks by male/female host. Fair signal but noisy band. (John Wilkins, CO/Cumbre DX)

United Arab Emirates
9855 Radio Australia English broadcast relay via Southeast Asia, 2216-2302. News and commentary on Libya into media news and sports review to 2257 with station ID as; "you are listening to Radio Australia..across the southeast Asia region." Report from Lahore, India and news at 2300. Signal fair to good. (Ed Kusalink, Canada)

4840, WWCR (Nashville, TN). 0524-0539. English program Network ID as “GCN Radio Network with Alex Jones.” Program about financial malfeasance of the world’s bankers. Ads for survivalist supplies such as food supplies and gold. Very good. (Joe Wood, TN).

Radio Gloria slated for Sunday broadcast

Date: 27th of November 2011

Time 10.00 to 1100 UTC

Frequency: 9480 kHz via Göhren + shortwaveservice.com

Frequency: 6005 kHz via Radio 700 + shortwaveservice.com

Time 14.00 to 1500 UTC

Frequency: 6140 kHz via Issoudun / Nauen

Time 16-17 UTC via Coloradio.org

EMR is on 9480 kHz this Sunday

Date: 27th of November 2011

Time: 0900 to 1000 UTC

Frequency: 9480 kHz


09.00 Tom Taylor program

09.30 Mike Taylor (Mail Box program)

EMR Internet radio service on Sunday and Monday

Program repeats are at the following times:

09.00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00, 21:00 UTC

Please visit http://www.emr.org.uk/ and click on the “EMR internet radio” button which you will find throughout the website (see the menu on the left).

Please send all reception reports to: studio@emr.org.uk
Good Listening
73s Tom

December Specials from DX Stamp Service

Thanks to Bill Plum for sending in his December specials. Looking for mint postage stamps to enclose within your reception reports ? Or, maybe you're running short of special sized airmail envelopes and other DX-related supplies.

Mint postage stamps of foreign countries can be purchased from Bill Plum's Airmail Postage and DX Supplies, 12 Glenn Road, Flemington, NJ 08822 USA.

Include a self-addressed-envelope for his current price list or request a price list via email at plumdx@msn.com. The prices represent Airmail rate to North America. Prices are subject to change without notice. No mimimum order via check, money order or credit card, but credit card orders under $ 15.00 will incur a $ 2.00 extra charge. Visa, MC, AMEX are accepted. Please include billing and shipping address for AMEX.

Bill's the man that can fill all your supply needs ... and don't forget to tell him Shortwave Central sent you!
Gayle Van Horn

Dear Customer,
Below are December DX specials, you can start using them now. Our QSL album specials could make someone's Christmas very nice!

A new batch of Euro Air Returns just delivered, Mailer size to be received soon. With a small price increase on both sizes, our current prices on the Euro envelopes will remain the same. Prices for QSL Albums and pages should remain the same thru most of 2012.

On Back Order: PR China, Oman, Netherlands, Lebanon.

In Stock Again: Kazakhstan, Belarus, Latvia, Luxembourg.


3 Germany-$3.90 3 UK (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland) $4.50

3 Italy-$8.25 2 Switzerland-$4.00 2 Canada-$2.00 3 Japan-$3.90


200/200 European Air Mailers & Returns $35

200/200 Stateside Mailers & Returns $16

2 Standard QSL Albums $40

2 Deluxe QSL Albums $60

Shipping charges extra on supply specials

PRIORITY MAIL Shipping Rates for Supplies

Orders under $16.00 add $6.50, Orders from $16.00 to $40.00 add $9.00, Orders from $41.00 to $100.00 add $13.00, Orders from $101.00 to $150.00 add $18.00, orders over $150.00 add 12%. When ordering supplies AND stamps, use supply total to figure shipping costs. Stamps “ride free” when you order supplies. Shipments to Canada ship at a greater cost.

Friday, November 25, 2011

Radio Netherlands Program Preview, Nov. 25-Dec 1

The State We're In
Jonathan Groubert and his team look at current events from an unexpected perspective.

This week: Tough guys

A “snatchback” detective who returns children to their parents in other countries. A mountaineer who was left for dead on Mt. Everest, but lived to tell the tale. Ex-pro hockey “enforcer” Georges Laraque who’s now a Green Party vegan. And a man named Bill whose sex drive was the bane of his existence ... until he castrated himself.

First airing: Saturday 02:00 UTC

Earth Beat
Marnie Chesterton and her team look at the footprint we’re leaving on our planet.

This week: Wild things

This week we go really wild. From bees in search of pastures new, to plastic-eating albatrosses and a visit to the world's very first sustainable sea farm. It’s seaweed for all and more.

First airing: Friday 03:00 UTC

South Asia Wired
Stories from South Asia.

This week:

We feature two filmmakers with one obsession – Afghanistan. While British photographer and filmmaker Seamus Murphy focussed on the conflict in the country and how it affected the Afghani people, German director Kai Sehr chose to tell the story of Afghani kids learning how to skate. They share their experiences of being behind the camera and capturing the lives of people in a war-ravaged country.

(There'll be a new edition of the programme on Thursday 1 December)

First airing: Thursday 10:00 UTC

Bridges With Africa
We're giving the microphone to Diaspora groups in Europe and are linking up with stations in Africa.

This week:

Aid and the path to corruption: Ugandans debate Dutch moves to cut international funding. Surprisingly, many Ugandans believe that aid is more trouble than it’s worth.
Passing the buck: The blame game that’s destroying the Niger Delta. We have a special report on the environmental disaster in Nigeria that no one wants to put right. Helene Michaud reports on the impasse between oil giant Shell and the villagers whose lives have been blighted by oil pollution.
Sister Act, the musical. We interview the Cape Verde singer who’s taking Vienna by storm with rave reviews from Austria’s theatre critics.

First airing: Friday 00:00 UTC

Africa in Progress
Inspiring round-table discussions with guest speakers and in-depth interviews give listeners food for thought.

This week: Breaking taboos with radio drama

Soap operas are extremely popular in Africa. In general, they either entertain, educate, or do both! In this edition, we examine the thinking behind successful radio dramas. Musekeweya, a long running radio drama in Rwanda, is successful because it tackles controversial issues head on.

First airing: Monday 19:00 UTC

Commonwealth Story
A selection of winning stories chosen from the large number of entries for the 2010 Commonwealth Short Story Competition.

This week:

Framing the nation - by Sylvia Schlettwein (Namibia). Where to hang an old family painting?

First airing: Tuesday 01:50 UTC

Global Perspective
Who says I can’t… is the motto of this year’s collaboration of international broadcasters, offering stories of defiance and perseverance.

This week: Who says I can’t escape?

Canada is a nation of immigrants. Its self-image as a safe haven for refugees is a point of national pride. But there is always a gatekeeper, a bureaucrat in an immigration office who says you can - or can’t - come in. And that’s where broadcaster Natasha Fatah begins the story of Eduardo Lopez in her documentary Escape from Honduras, from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

First airing: Monday 17:30 UTC

European Jazz Stage
Unique jazz performances from the continent’s hottest clubs, concert halls and festivals, including the spectacular North Sea Jazz Festival.

This week:

The current series of Hear the World has come to an end. We are pleased to announce the return of the European Jazz Stage. Your host will be Dutch saxophonist and band leader Benjamin Herman. The music in this first edition is from 3 continents.

From the US, where jazz was born, the Roy Hargrove Big Band is opening the show. Italian singer Roberta Gambarini is joining the band for a little European flavour.

German pianist Franz von Chossy is representing Europe. Trained as a classical pianist he studied jazz piano in New York. The other members of his trio are bassist Clemens van der Veen and drummer Paul Witgen.

From Africa, it's Cameroonian bassist Etienne Mbappee. This master of rhythms has created a music style all his own, incorporating a wide range of influences from African music, jazz, funk, and rock to classical music.

First airing: Monday 01:00 UTC

RNW Classical
Classical concerts from the Royal Concertgebouw as well as studio recordings of Dutch performers, presented by Hans Haffmans.

Available 24 hours a day via our sister web station RNWclassical.com

Radio Nethrlands streaming audio: www.radionetherlands.nl/

Radio Netherlands Multilingual B11 Schedule
Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

All times UTC

0000-0027 6195am
0100-0127 6195sa
0300-0327 6165sa
0330-0357 6165na
0400-0427 6165am
0600-0627 6165am 9865pa
0600-0657 5955va (af/eu) 9830va (af/eu) 9895eu
0700-0757 5955eu 6120eu
0700-0800 9895va (af/eu)
0800-0827 15750pa
0800-0857 mtwhf 11935af
0800-0900 5955eu 9895eu
0800-0900 Sat/Sun 11935af
0900-1000 5955eu
0900-1000 mtwhf 6035eu 6120va (af/eu)
0900-1000 Sat/Sun 9895va (af/eu)
0930-0957 Sat/Sun 6020sa
0930-1000 mtwhf 6020sa
1000-1100 5955eu
1000-1100 mtwhf 6035eu
1000-1100 Sat/Sun 9895va (af/eu)
1100-1127 7360as
1200-1227 9795as 12065as
1300-1327 12065as 12080va (as/pa) 15255as
1600-1657 9750va (as/eu)
1600-1700 5955va (as/eu) 9895va (as/eu)
1630-1657 11615af 11655af
1700-1727 11655af
1700-1757 5955va (as/eu) 9895va (as/eu)
2100-2127 9500af 13700af 17605sa
2200-2227 6040va (af/eu) 15315sa 15540sa

1000-1057 12065as
1400-1457 12080as
1800-1900 11655af
1900-1957 11655af
1900-1959 11615af
1900-2000 7425af
2000-2057 7425af 11615af

1100-1200 9795as 15515as 15565as
2100-2200 9365af

0000-0057 6165sa
0200-0257 6165ca
1100-1127 6165am
1130-1157 6165sa
1200-1227 6165sa 9810ca
(original Excel via Leo va de Woude, R Netherlands. Also posted at BCL,
reformatted by GVH/MT)

Weekly Propagation Forecast Bulletins

Product: Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
:Issued: 2011 Nov 22 1901 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC web contact www.swpc.noaa.gov/weekly.html
# Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity 14 - 20 November 2011

Solar activity has been at low to moderate levels. On November 14 solar activity was at low levels with a C5/Sf flare observed at 14/0930 UTC from Region 1348 (N20, L=088, class/area Dso/120 on 15 November) with an associated Type II radio sweep (estimated shock velocity 610 km/s). Activity increased to moderate levels on November 15 with three M-class flares. Region 1348 produced an M1/Sf flare at 15/0912 UTC and an M1/1f flare at 15/2235 UTC, and Region 1346 (S18, L=339, class/area Dso/140 on 16 November) produced an M1/Sf flare at 15/1243 UTC. From November 16-20, activity returned to low levels with several Type II radio sweeps being reported. The first of these (estimated velocity of 529 km/s) was possibly associated with a C7 flare at 16/1505 UTC from Region 1348. Two Type II radio sweeps occurred on November 17, one (estimated velocity of 456 km/s) associated with a C2 flare at 0133 UTC from Region 1346 and the other (estimated velocity of 558 km/s) associated with a C6/Sf at 0727 UTC from Region 1346. The last Type II radio sweep of the summary period (estimated velocity of 542 km/s) was associated with a C1 flare at 19/0127 UTC from Region 1341 (N18, L=055, class/area Dso/210 on 09 November). Several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were observed during the period but none were earthward directed.

No proton events were observed at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit was at normal to moderate levels the entire period.

The geomagnetic field was quiet to unsettled. The period began with quiet conditions. Activity levels increased to quiet to unsettled for a brief time on 15 November, but soon returned to quiet levels and remained there for the remainder of the period.

Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity 23 November - 19 December 2011
Solar activity is expected to be at predominately low levels through the period. There is a slight chance, however, for isolated M-class activity.

No proton events are expected at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is expected to be at normal to moderate levels the entire period.

The geomagnetic field is expected to be generally quiet for most of the outlook period, with the exception of 28 - 29 November when quiet to unsettled levels are expected due to a small, recurrent coronal hole high speed stream.

Product: 27-day Space Weather Outlook Table 27DO.txt
:Issued: 2011 Nov 22 1901 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/wwire.html
# 27-day Space Weather Outlook Table

# Issued 2011-11-22
# UTC Radio Flux Planetary Largest
# Date 10.7 cm A Index Kp Index
2011 Nov 23 140 5 2
2011 Nov 24 145 5 2
2011 Nov 25 145 5 2
2011 Nov 26 155 5 2
2011 Nov 27 145 5 2
2011 Nov 28 150 7 3
2011 Nov 29 150 7 3
2011 Nov 30 155 5 2
2011 Dec 01 160 5 2
2011 Dec 02 160 5 2
2011 Dec 03 165 5 2
2011 Dec 04 165 5 2
2011 Dec 05 165 5 2
2011 Dec 06 165 5 2
2011 Dec 07 165 5 2
2011 Dec 08 160 5 2
2011 Dec 09 160 5 2
2011 Dec 10 155 5 2
2011 Dec 11 150 5 2
2011 Dec 12 140 5 2
2011 Dec 13 135 5 2
2011 Dec 14 135 5 2
2011 Dec 15 135 5 2
2011 Dec 16 135 5 2
2011 Dec 17 135 5 2
2011 Dec 18 135 5 2
2011 Dec 19 135 5 2

CVC International via Zambia, Winter Schedule

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

Via Lusaka, Zambia

All times UTC

English to West Africa and Nigeria
0600-2000 17695 LUS 100 kW 315 deg
2000-2200 13590 LUS 100 kW 315 deg

B-11 for Christian Voice via LUS=Lusaka
English to South and Central Africa
0500-1700 6065 LUS 100 kW 000 deg
1700-0500 4965 LUS 100 kW 000 deg
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany, Alokesh, Gupta, India)

Vatican Radio Winter Schedule Changes

All times UTC

Urdu Mon/Thu
0025-0040 NF 5890 TAC 100 kW 186 deg to SoAs, ex 5895
0025-0040 NF 7410 SMG 500 kW 085 deg to SoAs, ex 7335

0040-0200 NF 5890 TAC 100 kW 186 deg to SoAs, ex 5895
0040-0200 NF 7410 TAC 100 kW 131 deg to SoAs, ex 7335

English in DRM, Sat till 1600
1530-1550 NF 15190 SMG 125 kW 090 deg to SoAs, ex15180
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Alokesh Gupta, India & Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany)

CVC International-The Voice Winter Schedule

Via Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

All times UTC

Hindi to India
0000-0400 6260 TAC 100 kW 153 deg
0400-1100 13630 TAC 100 kW 153 deg
1100-1400 9500 TAC 100 kW 153 deg
1400-2000 6260 TAC 100 kW 153 deg

Hindi to South Asia
0100-0400 9975 TAC 100 kW 186 deg
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany & Alokesh Gupta, India)

Radio Serbia Winter Schedule

Serbia/ Bosnia

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

All times UTC

0100-0130 6190 BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to NoAm in Serbian Tue-Sat
0100-0200 6190 BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to NoAm in Serbian Sun/Mon
0130-0200 6190 BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to NoAm in English Tue-Sat
0200-0230 6190 BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to NoAm in Serbian Tue-Sat

1400-1430 9635 BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in English
1430-1500 9635 BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Serbian
1500-1530 9635*BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Spanish
1530-1600 9635*BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Arabic
1600-1630 9635 BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Russian
1630-1700 9635^BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in French
1700-1730 9635 BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in German
1730-1745 9635 BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Chinese
1745-1800 9635 BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Albahian
1800-1815 9635+BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Hungarian
1815-1830 9635+BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Greek
1830-1900 9635+BEO 010 kW 310/130 to WeEu in Italian

1900-1930 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in Russian
1930-2000 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in English
2000-2030 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in Spanish
2030-2100 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in Serbian Sun-Fri
2030-2130 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in Serbian Sat
2100-2130 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in German Sun-Fri
2130-2200 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in French
2200-2230 6100#BIJ 250 kW 310 deg to WeEu in English

*co-ch 1500-1600 China Radio International in English
^co-ch 1630-1700 Vatican Radio in Arabic
+co-ch 1800-1900 IBRA Radio in Arabic
#co-ch 1900-2230 China Radio Internat in Russian/Ar/Ar/Chinese
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Window 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany & Alokesh Gupta, India)

Radio Taiwan International Winter Schedule via TDF

Transmitters via France and French Guiana

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

All times UTC

1400-1458 15225 ISS 500 kW 060 deg to RUSS in Russian
1600-1658 12055 ISS 500 kW 085 deg to SoEaAS in English
1700-1758 7465 ISS 500 kW 055 deg to RUSS in Russian
1700-1758 15690 ISS 500 kW 160 deg to SoAF in English
1800-1858 3965 ISS 250 kW 345 deg to U.K. in English
1900-1958 11875 ISS 500 kW 190 deg to NoAF in French
2000-2058 3965 ISS 250 kW 215 deg to SoEUR in Spanish
2100-2158 3965 ISS 250 kW 050 deg to WeEUR in German
0200-0300 11995 GUF 500 kW 195 deg to SoAM in Spanish
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany & Alokesh Gupta, India)

RT Algeria Winter Schedule

Transmitter via France

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

All times UTC

Holy Qura'n in Arabic via TDF:
0400-0458 5865 ISS 500 kW 162 deg to CeEaAF
0500-0558 5865 ISS 500 kW 194 deg to NoWeAF
0500-0558 7295 ISS 500 kW 162 deg to CeEaAF
0600-0658 5865 ISS 500 kW 194 deg to NoWeAF till Feb.25
0600-0658 7295 ISS 500 kW 194 deg to NoWeAF from Feb.26
1800-1958 9390 ISS 500 kW 162 deg to CeEaAF till Feb.25
1800-1958 11955 ISS 500 kW 162 deg to CeEaAF from Feb.26
1900-2058 7455 ISS 500 kW 194 deg to NoWeAF
1900-2058 9390 ISS 500 kW 194 deg to NoWeAF
2000-2158 7455 ISS 500 kW 162 deg to CeEaAF till Feb.25
2000-2158 9390 ISS 500 kW 162 deg to CeEaAF from Feb.26
2100-2158 7455 ISS 500 kW 194 deg to NoWeAF
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany & Alokesh Gupta, India)

HCJB Global Voice Winter Schedule

Via Santiago, Chile

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

All times UTC

German to Brasil
2300-2400 9835 SGO 050 kW 045 deg

Kulina to Brasil
2245-2300 11920 SGO 050 kW 025 deg

Portuguese to Brasil
2300-0045 11920 SGO 050 kW 025 deg

B-11 for Voz Crista La Voz via Santiago, Chile

Spanish to Brasil

1800-2000 17860 SGO 015 kW 045 deg DRM

Spanish to Northern South America
1100-0100 17680 SGO 050 kW 000 deg

Spanish to Southern South America
1100-0100 9635 SGO 050 kW 030 deg
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany & Alokesh Gupta, India)

Radio Belarus Winter Schedule

Effective: 30 October 2011 - 25 March 2012

Belarussian Home Service
0400-0700 7255 MNS 250 kW 075 deg
1500-1700 7255 MNS 250 kW 075 deg

1100-1400 7360 MNS 075 kW 270 deg
1100-1400 7390 MNS 150 kW 245 deg

1400-1600 7360 MNS 075 kW 270 deg
1400-1600 7390 MNS 150 kW 245 deg

1600-1800 7360 MNS 075 kW 270 deg
1600-1800 7390 MNS 150 kW 245 deg
1700-1800 6155 MNS 250 kW 252 deg

1800-2000 6155 MNS 250 kW 252 deg#
1800-2000 7360 MNS 075 kW 270 deg#
1800-2000 7390 MNS 150 kW 245 deg#

2000-2200 6155 MNS 250 kW 252 deg*
2000-2200 7360 MNS 075 kW 270 deg*
2000-2200 7390 MNS 150 kW 245 deg*

2200-2300 6155 MNS 250 kW 252 deg
2200-2300 7360 MNS 075 kW 270 deg
2200-2300 7390 MNS 150 kW 245 deg
# 1940-2000 Sat/Sun French Belarus from A to Z
* 2000-2020 Sun Spanish px-Belarus from A to Z
(R BULGARIA DX MIX News, Ivo Ivanov, via wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Nov 22)
(DX Mix News 704 via Wolfgang Bueschel, Germany & Alokesh Gupta, India)

Voice of America ends Croatian broadcast

Washington, D.C. — November 23, 2011 —

Voice of America’s Croatian Service signs off for the last time Wednesday, after 19 years of broadcast history that began during the bloody breakup of the former Yugoslavia, and ends with Croatia’s emergence as a democratic member of the European community.

VOA Director David Ensor called the service “a model of journalistic integrity that provided the people of Croatia with fair and impartial news during the dark days of civil war in the Balkans.” Ensor commended the service, which he said, “served as a vital source of independent reporting and insight into American policy.”

Voice of America established its Croatian Language Service on February 20, 1992, a time when the most brutal war since World War II was raging in the Balkans.

Spun off from the former Yugoslav Service which had been broadcasting to the area since 1943, VOA Croatian broadcasts began on radio, but were quickly expanded into television. The service was one of VOA’s first to establish an online presence.

VOA Croatian’s five-minute TV NewsFlash was broadcast daily on eight affiliate stations and focused on American news of relevance to Croatian audiences, including business, science, American culture, and politics. The popular Breakfast Show, a roundup of US, Croatian and world news, aired on radio for 19 years, without a single day of interruption. An evening radio show aired on shortwave and ten affiliate FM stations in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.

In addition to news coverage, VOA Croatian served as a source of entertainment and cultural programming for more than a decade. Nearly 700 episodes of Saturday’s American Cultural Magazine were aired, with stories on leading entertainers, from blues guitar legend B.B. King, to Los Lobos, the Grammy-winning Los Angeles band that performed in Zagreb in 2010.

VOA Croatian Service Chief Zorz Crmaric called going off the air a “bittersweet moment” that comes as the country begins a new chapter in European integration. He noted Croatia is now a NATO member and is scheduled to join the European Union in 2013.

WRN Newsletter Updates

Sunday, November 27 2011: A Prairie Home Companion
Coming to us this week, a live broadcast performance of "A Prairie Home Companion" from the Town Hall in New York. With special guests Jazz keyboard legend Dick Hyman and his brilliant violinist daughter Judy Hyman, Israeli accordionist Uri Sharlin and vocalist Heather Masse. Also on the show, the Royal Academy of Radio Actors; Tim Russell, Sue Scott, and Fred Newman, The Guy's All-Star Shoe Band, and the latest News from Lake Wobegon.

In Africa and Europe: 1100 UTC / 1200 CET / 1300 CAT

Asia Calling

Sunday, November 27 2011: Asia Calling

Developed to reflect the lives and reality of citizens across the region, "Asia Calling" is a weekly radio programme from Indonesia’s Radio News Agency KBR68H.

Burma: the end of politics in exile? Aung San Suu Kyi will try to win a seat in Burma's parliament in forthcoming by-elections. Her National League for Democracy (NLD) have operated outside of the political system for years after they won a landslide election victory in 1990 but the result was never recognised by the ruling generals. Now the NLD has announced that urging the military to accept the results is no longer ‘realistic’ and they are joining the military's political process. As Nay Thwin reports it looks like the end of the political struggle outside the country.

Pakistani Hindus denied marriage and funeral rights. Hindus in Pakistan are being forced to bury dead bodies instead of cremating them because there are few places where they are allowed to carry out the practice. Hindus make up around 5 percent of the population in Pakistan; the majority are Muslim. Another problem facing the community is that they can’t legally marry. Shahab Rahman in Peshawar and Yaseer Khan in Islamabad take a look at the challenges facing this religious minority.

20 years on, families still look for the bones of love ones killed in the Santa Cruz massacre. 20 years ago this month, more than 250 unarmed students died when occupying Indonesian troops fired on a memorial procession to the Santa Cruz cemetery in East Timor. A further 250 are missing, believed dead, and nearly 400 others were wounded. Only a tiny number of the bodies from that day have been found. As Leoneto Gonsalves reports from Dilli, the families want the government to do more so they can finally put their love ones to rest.

Through art, China takes a look at climate change: floods, drought, extreme heat. The effects of global warming have shown their distruptive potential in many corners of the world. With the UN Climate Change Conference opening in Durban next Monday, attention will be on China, the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Coal, the most polluting fossil fuel, accounts for 70 percent of China's energy supply. Though the government is heavily investing in alternative and sustainable types of energy, it is unlikely that China will move away from its dependency on coal any time soon. Green activists say, there is insufficient public information about climate change in China. Rebecca Valli looks at how, through art, environmentalists are working to get the message out.

These stories and more this week on "Asia Calling".

In North America: 2230 ET / 1930 PT

In Europe: 2100 UTC / 2200 CET

In Africa and Asia 1200 UTC / 1300 CET / 1400 CAT

Radio Australia

Friday, November 27 2011: Radio Australia

From dreaming to depression, addiction to artificial intelligence, consciousness to coma, psychoanalysis to psychopathy, free will to forgetting - "All in the Mind" explores the human condition through the mind's eye.

In Europe: 0800 UTC / 0900 CET

In Africa and Asia 1730 UTC / 1830 CET / 1930 CAT

Radio Guangdong

Saturday, November 26 and Sunday, November 27 2011: Radio Guangdong

Radio Guangdong, established in October 1949, is a leading radio group in south China. Radio Guangdong programmes cover political, economic, social and cultural issues; programmes about Guangdong, programmes about Guangdong people and programmes linking Guangdong with the world.

In North America: Sat 1200 ET / 0900 PT
Sun 2030 ET / 1730 PT

In Africa and the Middle East: Sat 0015 UTC / 0215 CAT
Sat 1945 UTC / 2145 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific: Sat 0015 UTC / 1015 AEDT Sat 1945 UTC / 0645 (Sun) AEDT

In Europe: Sat 2045 UTC / 2145 CET

Radio Netherlands

Friday, November 25 and Saturday, November 26 2011: Radio Netherlands

On this week's "Earth Beat": Wild things.

This week we go really wild. From bees in search of pastures new, to plastic-eating albatrosses and a visit to the world's very first sustainable sea farm. It’s seaweed for all and more.

Saturday, November 26 and Sunday, November 27 2011: Radio Netherlands

In "The State We're In", Jonathan Groubert and his team look at current events from an unexpected perspective.

This week: Tough guys.

A “snatchback” detective, who returns children to their parents in other countries. A mountaineer, who was left for dead on Mt. Everest, but lived to tell the tale. Ex-pro hockey “enforcer” Georges Laraque, who’s now a Green Party vegan. And a man named Bill, whose sex drive was the bane of his existence... until he castrated himself.

Monday, November 28 2011: Radio Netherlands

This week on "Bridges with Africa": Chimurenga, the struggle for ideas in Africa.

Aid and the path to corruption: Ugandans debate Dutch moves to cut international funding. Surprisingly, many Ugandans believe that aid is more trouble than it’s worth.
Passing the buck. The blame game that’s destroying the Niger Delta. We have a special report on the environmental disaster in Nigeria that no one wants to put right. Helene Michaud reports on the impasse between oil giant Shell and the villagers, whose lives have been blighted by oil pollution.
Sister Act, the musical. An interview with the Cape Verde singer who’s taking Vienna by storm with rave reviews from Austria’s theatre critics.

Radio Netherlands broadcast times:
In North America: 0800 ET / 0500 PT
1800 ET / 0300 PT

In Africa and the Middle East: 1100 UTC / 1300 CAT
2200 UTC / 0000 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific 1100 UTC / 2200 AEDT
2200 UTC / 0900 AEDT

In Europe: 1930 UTC / 2030 CET 0030 UTC / 0130 CET

Radio New Zealand International

Saturday, November 26, Sunday, November 27 and Monday, November 28 2011: Radio New Zealand International. RNZI is New Zealand's only shortwave station, broadcasting to the Island nations of the Pacific. Its broadcasts range from Papua New Guinea in the west across to French Polynesia in the east, covering all South Pacific countries in between.

In North America: Mon - Fri 1200 ET / 0900 PT

Sun 1530 ET / 1230 PT

In Africa and the Middle East: 1700 UTC / 1900 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific: 1700 UTC / 0400 AEDT

In Europe: Sun 1400 UTC / 1500 CET
Sun 0530 UTC / 0630 CET

National Public Radio

Saturday, November 26 2011: NPR "Fresh Air"

"Fresh Air" with Terry Gross, the Peabody Award-winning weekday magazine of contemporary arts and issues, is one of public radio's most popular programmes. Though "Fresh Air" has been categorised as a "talk show", it hardly fits the mould. Its 1994 Peabody Award citation credits "Fresh Air" with "probing questions, revelatory interviews and unusual insights". A variety of top publications count Gross among America's leading interviewers. The show gives interviews as much time as needed, and complements them with comments from well-known critics and commentators.

In Europe: 1100 UTC / 1200 CET

Radio Romania International

Friday, November 25 and Saturday, November 26 2011: Radio Romania International

In "Terra in the 21st Century", the presenters will take a look at Romania’s virgin forests. The country boasts 250,000 hectares of wild forests, accounting for 65% of Europe’s untouched woodlands. Green watchdogs are taking steps to place these lands under strict protection.

Saturday, November 26 and Sunday, November 27 2011: Radio Romania International

"World of Culture” opens the doors of the “National Theater Festival”. “Man, this strange creature”; these words uttered by the famous Russian playwright Chekhov, were used as the slogan for the 21st National Theater Festival, which came to a close in November. Also on the show, the “RRI Encyclopedia”, takes us to the Bellu Mansion, one of the main tourist attractions in the town of Urlati, Prahova county, in southern Romania. This emblematic building is considered a jewel of the old Romanian style. And all gourmets are invited to experiment with another recipe in “The Cooking Show”, this week it is “smoked trout”.

Sunday, November 27 and Monday, November 28 2011: Radio Romania International

"Inside Romania" tells us stories from the Byzantine Ark. In the history of Romanian music, Byzantine psalm singing or chanting was the only musical genre transmitted orally or by musical notation until the 1880’s. Byzantine music manuscripts are the most important documents when attempting to reconstruct the world of sounds of the 15th to 18th centuries. After a period of decline, it was only after 1990 that Byzantine music saw a revival, in Bucharest, Iasi and other Romanian cities hosting old monasteries.

Monday, November 28 and Tuesday, November 29 2011: Radio Romania International

This week's "Pro Memoria" profiles Queen Marie of Romania, one of the greatest political personalities of Romania. She is also known as the nurse-queen, for having taken special care of those injured on the battlefield, during the war.

Tuesday, November 29 and Wednesday, November 30 2011: Radio Romania International

This week, “Business Club” takes a look at the machinery and farming equipment industry in Romania.

Wednesday, November 30 and Thursday, December 1 2011: Radio Romania International

In "Society Today", the new law on stray dogs in Romania comes under scrutiny, the more so as this is a long-standing problem in the country.

Radio Romania International broadcast times:

In North America: 0600 ET / 0300 PT
1730 ET / 1430 PT

In Africa and the Middle East: 1130 UTC / 1330 CAT
0430 UTC / 0630 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific: 1230 UTC / 2330 AEDT
0530 UTC / 1630 AEDT

In Europe: Mon - Fri 0500 UTC / 0600 CET 1400 UTC / 1500 CET 2000 UTC / 2100 CET

RTE Ireland
Saturday, November 26 2011: RTE Ireland

"Seascapes" is Radio 1's weekly maritime programme, providing comprehensive coverage of the marine sector presented by Marcus Connaughton.

This week's "Seascapes" features: Common Fisheries Policy proposals with Sean O'Donoghue / Ordeal by Ice-Ships of the Antarctic by Rorke Bryan / Islands with Olwen Gill / Winners of Fresh Water Birds of Ireland.

In Africa and the Middle East: 0330 UTC / 0530 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific: 0330 UTC / 1430 AEDT

In Europe: 1900 UTC / 2000 CET

Sunday, November 27 2011: RTE Ireland

"Off the Shelf", presented by Andy O'Mahony, is RTÉ Radio 1's book programme in which a carefully selected panel of contributors are set loose on one topic or individual. This week, Andy O'Mahony talks to Deborah Mattinson, author of "Talking to a Brick Wall".

In North America: 2100 ET / 1800 PT

In Africa and the Middle East: 0330 UTC / 0530 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific: 0330 UTC / 1430 AEDT

This Way Out

Saturday, November 26 2011 to Monday, November 28 2011: "This Way Out"

On this week's show: A lesbian comic's audience participation freaks out a Fringe Festival / Equality opponents get "standing" in Proposition 8's shadow / A UN agency fears Nigeria's proposed marriage and advocacy bans / Two Malaysian states consider double jeopardy for LGBT Muslims / Hong Kong sees its 22nd annual Lesbian and Gay Film Festival / religious exemptions get excised from Michigan's anti-bullying bill. All this and more LGBT news.

In Africa and the Middle East: Sun 0930 UTC / 1130 CAT
Sun 2030 UTC / 2230 CAT

In Asia and the Pacific: Sun 0930 UTC / 2030 AEDT
Sun 2030 UTC / Mon 0730 AEDT

In Europe: Sat 1030 UTC / 1130 CET
Sun 1730 UTC / 1830 CET

United Nations Radio
Saturday, November 26, Sunday, November 27 and Monday, November 28 2011: United Nations Radio "UN and Africa"

"UN and Africa" is a weekly radio programme that aims to cover topical and current affairs-related stories about what the UN is doing for Africa, in Africa and about Africa.

African countries continue to lag behind in industrialization, which could help them to boost their economies. Africa Industrialization Day is observed on 20 November each year to put a spotlight on the issue. The head of the UN Industrial Development Organization says, African countries need to speed up their industrialization process.

Cameroon and Nigeria continue their efforts to resolve a border dispute. Military confrontations over the dispute broke out between the two West African neighbours in the 1990s. The International Court of Justice made a ruling on the issue in 2002.

The number of new HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa has dropped by more than 26 percent, says a new UNAIDS report. It attributes the drop to better access to HIV treatment. The report also says that 70 percent of people living with HIV, still reside in the region.

In Africa and the Middle East: Sun 1030 UTC / 1230 CAT
In Asia and the Pacific: Sun 1030 UTC / 2130 AEDT

In Europe: Sun 0500 UTC / 0600 CET

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The Voice of America: Shipboard Relay Stations - The Apache

VOA Ship No. 3: The Apache - The American Ship with its Australian Cargo

In our continuing series of topics on the story of radio broadcasting from ships by VOA, the Voice of America, we come to ship number 3, the American vessel “Apache”. This is the story.
The “Apache” was constructed at Reeder Shipyards in Baltimore Maryland in the United States and it was launched in 1891 as the “Galveston”. It was 185 ft long and 29 ft wide, with an empty weight of 708 tons. It was a slow ship, with top speed at just 10 knots.
The ship “Galveston” saw many different forms of duty during its service of a little more than half a century. It served in the Spanish-American War of 1900; it was taken over by the governor of Texas for relief work after the hurricane at coastal Galveston in the same year; and in 1904, the name was changed to “Apache” when it was taken over by the United States Revenue Service. This ship saw wartime service during World War 1, and it was rebuilt in the United States in 1941.
In May 1944, it just happened that the ship Apache was in Sydney Harbour, Australia, undergoing modification and refitting for service in the Pacific during World War 2. An American serviceman by the name of Sanford Terry was in Australia at the time and he had received army orders to acquire a suitable ship and set it up as a radio broadcasting station. After inspecting two other ships, his decision fell upon the Apache, and modification began almost immediately for use as a radio broadcasting ship.
Two transmitters were obtained, both rated at 10 kW. Two International Harvester power generators at 50 kW each were obtained from American army stores in Australia and installed aboard.
The shortwave transmitter, manufactured by AWA in Sydney for use in wireless telegraphy, was in storage in Brisbane Queensland at the time, though it is not known for what purpose nor for what location this shortwave telegraph transmitter had been constructed. It was perhaps intended for use in army communications in Morse Code. The shortwave telegraph transmitter was modified for voice usage; for use in program broadcasting and the relay of news broadcasts to the United States.
At this stage, the mediumwave transmitter was nearing completion in a factory operated by Transmissions Equipment Ltd in Richmond, an outer suburb of Melbourne in Australia, and it is known that it was intended for installation by the PMG Department for use as an ABC mediumwave radio broadcasting station.
This mediumwave transmitter was designed for use on the channel 880 kHz, but the intended location for installation is not stated, nor is it revealed in available ABC & PMG documents from that era. There never has been an ABC station in Australia on the channel 880 kHz, and the power level of 10 kW during that era would indicate a major facility, perhaps even in a state capital city.
The original planning date for completion of the ship and its entire cargo was October 15, 1944. However, due to progressive developments up north in the Pacific, General MacArthur shortened the departure date and required the ship to depart Sydney on September 27. In haste, everything was completed on time, though the two transmitters were not yet ready to make preliminary test broadcasts.
Traveling alone along the east coast of Australia, the Apache arrived on schedule at the edge of Humboldt Bay on the northern coast of New Guinea, on October 11. However, at this stage, the Apache broke down and it had to be towed into the bay area at Hollandia, where repairs were quickly carried out.
For the first time, test broadcasts were made from the two transmitters. Just before noon on
Friday October 13, 1944, power was applied successfully to the mediumwave transmitter. This unit was then powered down, and then power was successfully applied to the shortwave transmitter. Next in this sequence, power was applied to both transmitters simultaneously, and then there was a loud pop, and the system closed down automatically.
Following the quick replacement of a blown large capacitor, the system was again activated, and voice contact was made on shortwave with San Francisco. Radio silence was imposed at 3:00 pm on all ships in the flotilla that was bound for the Philippines that afternoon. The Apache went silent now for a whole week.
A total of some 600 ships set sail from several ports along the north coast of New Guinea for the 1400 mile journey of silence towards Leyte Gulf in the Philippines. The Apache was just two hours behind the lead ships.
At 9:00 am on Friday October 20, 1944, the Apache arrived at Leyte Gulf, and there was already action on shore. Radio silence officially ended at 10:00 am on that day, so the engineering staff began to implement the procedure to activate the shortwave transmitter half an hour earlier, at 9:30 am.
Right on time at 10:00 am, the shortwave transmitter was used for voice communication with the USS Nashville in waters nearby, and with Hollandia in New Guinea, and with Honolulu in Hawaii.
Next day, the Apache began a series of radio broadcasts beamed to all of the Philippines under the title, “Voice of Freedom” on the shortwave channel, 7795 kHz. Soon afterwards, additional relay broadcasts from VOA the Voice of America, and from AFRS the Armed Forces Radio Service, were included in the daily program schedule.
Two days after arrival, on October 22, 1944, the Apache relayed to the world the famous “I Have Returned” speech from General MacArthur who was ashore at the time, speaking into a microphone in a mobile radio vehicle.
In addition, the shortwave transmitter was also in use for the forwarding of voice reports to the United States & Australia. Initially these reports were forwarded to Hollandia, and then to the American army station at Hemmant near Brisbane, though later these reports were beamed directly to KKR at the RCA receiver station near San Francisco in California.
New Year’s Day 1945 was slated as the last day for onward forwarding of live news reports from the Apache to the United States, though on some additional occasions the ship was called on to carry press releases beamed back home. When Press Wireless in the Philippines was re-activated, news reports to the United States were carried from this land based station.
In March, the broadcast of the American program, “Philippine Hour” was transferred from the “Australia Calling” transmitter VLC in Shepparton Australia and it was then on relay via the shortwave transmitter WVLC on board the Apache. The American callsign, WVLC had a double application. WV callsigns indicated American army; and WVLC was reminiscent of the Australian shortwave callsign VLC, which had previously carried American programming at the request of General MacArthur.
In March 1945, the Apache moved to Manila Harbor, and a long wire antenna was suspended between two damaged buildings close to the waterfront. Station WVLC mediumwave, with 10 kW on 880 kHz, was on the air for just a few weeks with local programming and announcements for MetroManila. A crane accidentally tore down the long wire antenna, and that ended the only occasion in which the mediumwave transmitter was on the air with program broadcasting.
In the middle of October 1945, another American radio ship, the Spindle Eye, arrived in Tokyo Bay and this ship took over the broadcast and communication services formerly carried by the Apache, though the Apache was monitored in Australia & New Zealand occasionally after that date.
The Apache finally moved over to Japan and she ended her days quite unceremoniously as a leisure craft in Tokyo Bay. She disappeared from the scene of action sometime after mid year 1946. We can only presume that the two transmitters, just a little over a year old, were removed and taken into use, perhaps in the Philippines, but probably in Japan.
On the QSL scene, a half dozen or more letters were received in those days by listeners in the United States, New Zealand & Australia, verifying the transmissions from the Australian shortwave transmitter WVLC aboard the American radio ship Apache. It was on the air for almost exactly one year.
(NWS 135 via Adrian Peterson)

Radio Afghanistan Returns to Shortwave

Radio Afghanistan Returns to the Air on Shortwave - 1: Early Mediumwave

Recent reports from international radio monitors living in Asia, Europe, North America and the South Pacific indicate that Radio Afghanistan has returned to the air on shortwave. This is an
interesting new development, and so today we take a look once again at the radio scene in this western Asian country of Afghanistan. Since we last wrote about the radio scene in Afghanistan, lots of information about which we were previously unaware has become available, and so here in Part 1, we take a look at the very early mediumwave scene in that part of the world.
The encyclopedia tells us that Afghanistan, the “Land of the Afghan” as the name means, is a landlocked country of great mountains, scorching deserts, fertile valleys and rolling plains in western Asia. It is an ancient country 1,000 miles long and 500 miles wide, bordered by six other countries, with a total population around 30 million made up of 20 ethnic groups and tribes.
Old Afghanistan was an important trading point on the ancient Silk Road leading from China to the Middle East & Europe. During that era, the city of Balkh in northern Afghanistan was the capital of the territory, Bactria and the city was so large that a traveler from China stated that its habitations extended for 20 miles. The massive, impressive ruins of Balkh show a huge, grand almost circular mud wall many miles in length. This city was destroyed a thousand years ago in an orgy of death and destruction perpetrated by 100,000 horsemen under the leadership of Genghis Khan from Mongolia.
Among the places of tourist interest in times past were the huge Buddhist statues carved into the mountain side at Bamiyan, the timeless ruins of once inhabited cities, and museum displays of relics from old societies. The 1½ mile long Salang Tunnel running between the capital city Kabul and the northern border is so high and the air so rarified at more than 12,000 ft altitude, that motor car engines do not run properly.
Many of the semi-precious jewels that embroider the Taj Mahal at Agra in India were mined in the eastern mountains of Afghanistan. The Buzkashi games in Kabul are a form of polo played on horse back using the head of a calf, instead of a sports ball.
Religion has always played an important part in the life cycle of the Afghan people, and many and varied have been the forms of their religions. Historians tell us that Zoroaster, the founder of the Persian religion, Zoroastrianism, was actually born in Balkh in Afghanistan, and he was killed there at the end of an illustrious life during a nomadic invasion. Zoroaster was approximately contemporary with the Biblical prophet Daniel who served in neighboring Persia during the 600s BC. Subsequently, Buddhism flourished in Bactria, and Islam entered almost a thousand years later.
Although neither Afghanistan nor Bactria are mentioned by name in the Bible, yet that territory played a significant part in ancient Biblical events. Bactria was one of the 127 provinces listed in the ancient Persian Empire, Alexander the Great from Greece marched through the territory and married a beautiful princess from a nearby country, and the doubting disciple Thomas traversed from Palestine through Bactria on his way to South India.
It was back in the year 1925 that the first tentative plans were laid for the introduction of radio broadcasting in Afghanistan. Two mediumwave transmitters from Telefunken in Germany were imported with the intent of establishing one in Kabul and the other in Kandahar. These transmitters lay unused for three years, due to the lack of technical expertise in the country, and also to the fact that there were very few receivers in Afghanistan anyway.
In 1928, one transmitter was installed in the King’s Palace in Kabul, and spasmodic program broadcasting began on the standard mediumwave channel 360 m, 833 kHz. Initially, 30 crystal set receivers were distributed around the capital city area, and soon afterwards, another 1,000 were distributed in the surrounding country areas. However, due to a local uprising during the following year, this new radio station together with the primitive studio were destroyed. The other transmitter was never installed at Kandahar due to local disturbances down there.
However, two years later, a new king made arrangements for the purchase of a 100 kW Telefunken-Siemens mediumwave transmitter from Germany. This unit actually rated at 25 kW, was installed in cages on the 2nd floor of a new transmitter building on the eastern edge of Kabul at Yakatut, on the north side of the highway running towards the famed Khyber Pass. In the latter part of its life, it was on the air on 660 kHz for 5 hours each Thursday evening only, with a power output of just 15 kW.
An additional 20 kW mediumwave transmitter was ordered from Telefunken in Germany during the year 1938. This equipment was transported via British India, arriving in Kabul by camel caravan in December 1939, four months after the outbreak of World War 2.
This new unit was installed on the ground floor of the same transmitter building at Yukatut. Initially, three different low end mediumwave channels were tried, and eventually it was considered that 675 kHz gave the best reception. The new Radio Kabul was officially inaugurated from their new downtown studios by the king at 7:30 am on August 28, 1940, their national day.
On this occasion, 500 crystal set receivers were sold to listeners in Kabul, with subsequent distribution in country areas. In addition, community receivers with loud speakers were installed
in local bazaars and in country villages.
In 1964, a new set of studios and offices in a new two storey building were inaugurated at Ansari Watt, on the short highway running out to the airport, and the downtown studio building was turned into a training center for Radio Afghanistan. A 3rd mediumwave transmitter, a 25 kW unit from BBC Switzerland, was installed on the ground floor in the transmitter building at Yakatut, replacing the 30 year old German unit.
During the Russian invasion, beginning in 1979, it appears that each of the units in the radio broadcasting system in Afghanistan was either damaged or destroyed.
However, comes the month of March in the year 1994, and it appears that all three radio buildings, the original downtown studios, the new studio building at Ansari Watt, and the transmitter building at Yakatut, were destroyed in fighting during the early part of the Russian invasion.
When we take up the Afghanistan story again, we will present the information regarding early shortwave broadcasting in that troubled country.
(NWS 134 via Adrian Peterson)

Minivan Radio for the Maldives

Recently we were asked the question: What is the story regarding Minivan Radio, the shortwave radio broadcasting service beamed to the Maldive Islands, out there in the Indian Ocean? In response, Jeff White at Radio Miami International, WRMI in Miami Florida, provided us with an excellent overview of this radio broadcasting service that was on the air for a period of just three years.
The word Minivan in Diveh, the national language in the Maldive Islands, means “Independent”. Minivan Radio, during its brief life span, maintained offices in several different countries, including England & Sri Lanka, and also in Male, the capital city in the Maldive Islands. The programming, always in Maldivian Divehi, was produced in England.
The first one-day test transmissions were broadcast on 11525 kHz from Bulgaria from 1630 - 1730 UTC on August 18, 2004. This original one time test transmission was made at 100 kW during the first half hour, and at 250 kW during the second half hour. Monitoring reports in the Pacific indicated poor modulation during the first half hour though with better modulation during the second half hour.
BBC Monitoring stated that their monitoring observations indicated a site at Kostinbrod in
Bulgaria, and we would suggest that this was for the first half hour of the broadcast. We would suggest that the second half hour at increased power was made from the Plovdiv site in Bulgaria.
Regular transmissions for Radio Minivan began just one week later, August 25, 2004, from the Julich site in Germany. The frequency was 13855 kHz, the power was 100 kW, and the time was adjusted to 1600 - 1700 UTC. This initial broadcast was heard by Jerry Berg in suburban Boston with an identification announcement stating WRMI in Miami; it was heard by Jose Jacob in India with jamming; it was heard by Anker Petersen in Denmark with side band interference; and by Victor Goonetilleke in Colombo Sri Lanka with tone jamming.
Glenn Hauser, reporting in Monitoring Times in the United States, states that an additional test transmission was made from Bulgaria on September 3, 2004, from 1630 - 1730 UTC on two channels, 9985 & 11535 kHz.
During the devastating tsunami that swept across the Indian Ocean after the December 26 2004 earthquake off the coast of Indonesia, Minivan Radio provided much needed communications for the outlying islands in the Maldives. Most of the islands were overwhelmed with water inundation, and
telephone & internet services were no longer functioning.
On January 1, 2006, the shortwave transmissions from Germany were temporarily suspended, following a raid on the Minivan offices in Sri Lanka, though the programming was still available on the internet. However, three weeks later the shortwave broadcasts from Minivan Radio were resumed, this time on 11800 kHz, from Julich in Germany.
Around the middle of the year 2006, a listener survey was conducted, and it was determined that ¼ of the total population of the Maldive Islands were listening regularly to the shortwave broadcasts of Minivan Radio, even though the signal was jammed in the capital city area.
In March 2007, the shortwave broadcasts were suspended in anticipation that a local FM license would be granted. However, the license was not forthcoming, and so once again the shortwave broadcasts were resumed, still from Julich in Germany at 100 kW and still daily at 1600 - 1700 UTC, this time on 11725 kHz.
However, the last day of shortwave broadcasting was August 31, 2007. The service was no longer needed, since the Minivan organization won the elections.
Interestingly, the Radio Minivan office in Male is co-sited with the Minivan News Service, and with the Minivan Daily newspaper, though Minivan Radio is not organizationally connected with either of the two other services.
QSL cards for the Minivan programming were issued by Media Broadcast in Germany and by WRMI in Florida. QSL letters were issued from the Minivan office in England.
(NWS 133 via Adrian Peterson)

The Voice of America: Shipboard Relay Stations - Radio Ship Phoenix

VOA Ship No. 2: The Mystery Story of the Radio Ship Phoenix

The story of the radio broadcastings ship, Phoenix, has always been wrapped in mystery ever since its inauguration more than ½ a century ago. The ship was fitted out as a radio broadcasting ship and it was in use in the Pacific at the latter end of World War 2 with broadcasts aimed at Asian rim countries, and in particular, Japan.
But where did the ship come from? And what happened to it afterwards? And what about international monitoring reports while it was on the air? In answer to all of these questions, a lengthy and intense spate of research has produced some interesting and unexpected information. That is the opening story in Wavescan today; The Mystery Story of the Radio Ship Phoenix, the 2nd ship broadcasting station that was on the air with programming on behalf of VOA, the Voice of America.
Let’s go back to the beginning, and we discover that the ship itself was not named the Phoenix; its real name was Triton Maris. The name Phoenix indicated the wartime project under which the purpose of the ship was developed, and it was never the name of the ship.
To make the matter more confusing, there was an American battleship in the Pacific during the same era and this was named the USS Phoenix. The official designation for the navy vessel was CL46, but this ship was never in use as a relay station for VOA programming.
Old shipping documents show that the Triton Maris was an Italian ship, not Greek as was mistakenly suggested for the Phoenix on previous occasions. It was constructed in the year 1898 as a dry bulk carrier, a cargo ship. It was nearly 250 feet long and 35 feet wide with an empty weight of 2300 tons.
The ship, Triton Maris, was taken over by the American army, and then granted to OWI, the American Office of War Information for modification as a radio broadcasting ship, we would suggest during the year 1943. Originally, this ship was intended for use as a floating radio station for deployment in European waters, quite similar to the usage of the American battle ship, USS Texas, a few months earlier, off the Mediterranean coast of Morocco in Africa.
A 50 kW mediumwave transmitter, a Western Electric Model 7A, was obtained from the well known broadcasting station, KSL in Salt Lake City Utah. This 8 year old transmitter was installed in the ship Triton Maris, probably at some port along the California coastline.
However, there was a delay in the deployment of this radio broadcasting ship, brought about because the navy was apprehensive that this slow moving vessel could become a liability in any active theatre of war. In view of the fact that the ship was finally not making its way towards Europe, General Douglas MacArthur ordered its deployment in the Pacific. Maybe they made some test broadcasts before leaving the sheltered waters of the United States.
The ship Triton Maris was temporarily moved to Hawaiian waters, probably at Pearl Harbor, and it was inaugurated as a radio broadcasting station on December 25, 1944. The nearby landbased shortwave station KRHO was inaugurated on the same date, and both stations were on the air with a relay of VOA programming from the new California shortwave station KWID. At this stage, the mediumwave transmitter aboard the Triton Maris was on the air under the callsign KRHO.
At the end of February, in the New Year 1945, the Triton Maris was moved to the coastal waters off the recently liberated island of Saipan. The 1st broadcast from this new location, as monitored in New Zealand, was on March 4, and the callsign at this stage remained KRHO. Programming was again taken off air from shortwave KRHO.
However, in June the transmitter was removed from the ship Triton Maris and re-installed at Tanapag on Saipan Island. At this stage, a new callsign was employed for this now landbased mediumwave relay station, the now familiar KSAI.
Mediumwave radio station KSAI was located on Saipan in a set of quonset huts, which was also the location of the AFRS mediumwave station WXLD. KSAI was on the air on Saipan until the middle of the year 1946, when, according to some reports, it was simply abandoned.
However, that is not the case. VOA documents indicate that the transmitter was instead removed from Saipan and re-installed in the Philippines at Malolos, on the site of an early VOA relay station north of Manila. This transmitter was inaugurated at its new location as VOA Manila A on March 7, 1948. By now, the old Western Electric 7A transmitter, still rated at 50 kW, was noted on 920 kHz with programming directed towards Asia.
Over a period of time, the mediumwave transmitter, while still aboard the Triton Maris, was heard in Australia, New Zealand & the United States on many different channels, in an attempt to avoid Japanese jamming. The original channel in Hawaiian waters was 1,000 kHz, though there were often quick moves to other channels, such as 1010, 860 & 960 kHz. When the station was installed on land at Tanapag on Saipan Island, usually only one constant channel was in use, 1010 kHz, though in July 1945, tests were made on two other channels, 1280 & 850 kHz.
Programming for mediumwave KRHO-KSAI was usually in parallel with shortwave KRHO in Hawaii, though there were occasions when local programming was produced on the island of Saipan in the Japanese language. At times the local AFRS 1 kW mediumwave station on Saipan, WXLD, was also in parallel with the programming from the 50 kW KSAI, with the signals from both stations beamed towards Japan.
During the year 1945, there were at least two navy reviews regarding the effectiveness of the OWI broadcasts from the Triton Maris, and these documents are lodged in the Eisenhower Library in Abilene Kansas.
So, that is the story of the Italian cargo vessel, the Triton Maris, that was transformed into a radio broadcasting ship for use under Project Phoenix, and that was heard from the end of 1944 till the middle of 1946 with a very strong signal in many countries around the Pacific Rim.

The Rest of the Story: The VOA Triton Maris

As the well known Paul Harvey would sometimes say: And now the rest of the story. What happened to the ship Triton Maris after it was no longer in use as a radio broadcasting station? This is
what happened.
The Italian crew returned to their homes in Italy, the remaining electronics were removed, and the ship was put on sale in the United States in February 1946. No one bought the old ship, so in April 1947, it was returned to its original owners in Italy.
What about the mighty 50 kW Western Electric mediumwave transmitter? Originally from KSL Salt Lake City, as mentioned by Shanon Hunniwell in the American radio magazine, Popular Communications, it was deployed aboard the Triton Maris in the Pacific, reinstalled on the island of Saipan, and later transferred to Malolos in the Philippines, its 4th location.
Around the middle of the 1960s, the Philippine Broadcasting service upgraded the electronics at their recently acquired station at Malolos and removed old obsolete equipment from service. Apparently, the venerable 50 kW mediumwave WE7A was simply removed at that time, demolished, and sold for scrap.
And the Tanapag location on Saipan? The old VOA location is now the site for the Tanapag Elementary School.
And QSL cards? Yes, numerous VOA cards in two different styles were issued from Honolulu and San Francisco for the mediumwave broadcasts under the callsigns KRHO & KSAI. And during the earlier part of that broadcast era, the programming was actually on the air from a radio broadcasting ship, though most listeners were not aware of it, the now historic but obscure Triton Maris.
(NWS 133 via Adrian Perterson)

The Voice of America: Shipboard Relay Stations

VOA Ship No. 2: The Story of the Historic KSL Transmitter in Salt Lake City - Part 1

On this occasion here in Wavescan, we return to the story of Shipboard Relay Stations as used by VOA, the Voice of America, and there have been more than a dozen of them in use in different ways over the years. Today, it is the story of an old mediumwave transmitter that was formerly on the air at the high powered mediumwave station, KSL in Salt Lake City, Utah.
In a previous program, we presented the story of Utah on shortwave, and we gave the details of the 1939 unsuccessful attempt by KSL to transfer the low powered shortwave station W9XAA in Chicago to Salt Lake City with an increase in power.
We also mentioned the fact that the owners of station KSL also took over the Boston shortwave station WRUL and changed the callsign to WNYW, and this facility was later taken over by Family Radio as WYFR.
Then too, we presented the information regarding the commercial shortwave station that was launched in Salt Lake City as KUSW, which was then taken over by the Trinity Broadcasting Network as KTBN, and then sold to the Caribbean Beacon on Anguilla where it was absorbed into their technical structure.
OK, so now we tell the story of the mediumwave station KSL in Salt Lake City Utah, and in particular, the interesting information regarding specifically one of their high powered transmitters. The story begins in this way.
It was back in the year 1920, that a license was granted to the newspaper, Deseret News, for the installation of an experimental broadcasting station with the call letters KZN. On May 26, 1922, the new station KZN was inaugurated, with 500 watts on 833 kHz, and it is now recognized as the first radio broadcasting station in Salt Lake City. The studio was inside the Deseret News building, and the 8 wire inverted L antenna system was supported on the roof of the building by two masts 40 ft tall.
Two years later, station KZN was sold to John Copes, who changed the call to KFPT and the broadcast channel to 1120 kHz, though the original transmitter was still in use.
However, one year later again, the station was sold to the Salt LakeTribune, and the station was moved to the North West Temple Street Building. The modified radio broadcasting facility now had a 1 kW transmitter, a 6 wire cage antenna on top of the building, a new channel 900 kHz, and a new callsign, the now familiar KSL. This callsign was previously in use by a communication station in Alaska.
In 1929, a new transmitter facility was constructed 8 miles west of Salt Lake City, and a new 5 kW transmitter was installed there with a vertical 3 wire fan antenna system.
However, three years later again, that is in October 1932, another new site was commissioned at Saltair, some six miles further out than the 5 kW location; that is, a total of some 14 miles west of Salt Lake City itself. A new high powered 50 kW transmitter was installed at this new location with a T type antenna system.
The new 50 kW transmitter installed at Saltair on this occasion was a Western Electric model 7A. This transmitter was a direct copy of the WE 7A that was installed at station WLW, near Cincinnati Ohio just four years earlier. Station KSL also took out a set of new radio studios in Salt Lake City around this same era.
However, give another 8 years, and KSL built a new transmitter building on the same property at
Saltair, and they procured another 50 kW transmitter from the same manufacturer, Western Electric. This new transmitter was identified as a model WE 407A, with the WE standing for Western Electric and the designation 407A standing for the model number 7A, in the year 1940.
The transmitter building at this stage was the attractive art deco style building pictured in color, and in black & white, on some of their earlier QSL cards. The antenna system at this stage was the unique diamond shaped Blaw-Knox tower standing 455 feet tall. Now, it was at this stage, that the old WE 7A from 1932 was removed from service.
The attractive art deco transmitter building was demolished in 1986, after a new utilitarian transmitter building, the 3rd at this location, was erected on the same property, a little higher up the low hill. This new building contains a set of newer 50 kW transmitters, a pair of Nautels.
Actually, international radio monitors in New Zealand & Australia tell us that station KSL is one of the easiest mediumwave stations in the United States to hear in the South Pacific. Numerous QSL collections in both countries hold valid QSL cards from KSL.
Now, let us remember, the original 50 kW Western Electric 7A that was on the air with KSL for a period of 8 years, from October 1932 until it was removed from service in the year 1940. This transmitter was taken over by OWI, the Office of War Information in the United States, for use as a propaganda radio station, and it was installed on board a ship destined for service in European waters during World War 2. That is the story here in Wavescan two weeks from now.
Radio station KSL has always been a reliable verifier of listener reception reports, and many are the designs they have used for their QSL cards. The Indianapolis Collection contains a dozen cards from station KSL, dating from 1931 to the present.
One of these QSL cards, verifying a reception report dated June 18, 1933, verifies the reception of this station as heard in New Zealand. This is the only QSL card from station KSL in the Indianapolis Collection that verifies the historic 50 kW WE 7A transmitter, which was the focus of attention in this historic radio feature here in Wavescan today.
(NWS 131 via Adrian Peterson)

A New Radio County: South Sudan

Around our world and over the years, there are some united countries that have divided into two separated countries; and in other parts of the world, some separated countries have joined together to form one country. For example in Europe, West Germany & East Germany joined together to form Germany. Over in Southern Asia, British India divided into two countries, India & Pakistan; and then subsequently Pakistan went through another division, to form the two countries we now know as Pakistan & Bangladesh.
In Africa, just a few weeks ago, in a significant political event, a quite large country was divided into two countries. It was just last month, on Saturday July 9, that Sudan was officially divided and two countries were formed; and we know them, at least at present, as Sudan & South Sudan.
In our program today, we take a long and interesting preliminary look at the combined Sudan, its backgrounds and its radio development. Then two weeks from now, we plan to specifically investigate the radio scene as it applies in particular to the new country of South Sudan.
The country of combined Sudan was described in the encyclopedia as the largest country in Africa, nearly 1300 miles long and nearly 1200 miles wide, with a water border on the Red Sea at 400 miles. The northern areas of Sudan are mainly sandy desert, the middle of the country is made up of grass covered plains, and the south merges into dense tropical jungle.
The two major river systems, the White Nile from mainly Lake Victoria & the Blue Nile from Ethiopia, meet in Sudan, and the twin cites Omdurman & Khartoum have grown up at the junction of these two waterways. Omdurman is the national capital, and Khartoum is the largest city in the country. The total population is estimated at around 30 million.
The earliest settlements in Sudan go way back into ancient history, and there has always been play and interplay between Sudan & Egypt. During some historic eras, Egypt dominated the Sudan, and there were times when the Sudan dominated Egypt. One ancient historian tells the story of the Biblical patriarch Moses leading a military campaign into the southern areas of Egypt and into the Sudan in a successful endeavor to oust the invaders from the south, though this event is not referred to in the Bible itself.
However, there are many Biblical references to the territory we know as the Sudan and to its people, usually designated as Kush. It should be mentioned that Queen Candace, referred to in the New Testament, was the ruling monarch at Meroe, the ruins of which are still visible today north of the twin cities. Interestingly, there are 223 pyramids in the Sudan, twice as many as in Egypt, though the Sudanese pyramids are smaller and built at a steeper angle.
The Belgians were the first Europeans to lay a territorial claim in the Sudan, and that was in the year 1896, in an area of the south. Three years later, the British took over; and in 1956, Sudan gained its independence as the 54th country in Africa.
Strangely, there is a small territory that neither country claims, the territory on the border between Sudan and South Sudan, known as Bir Tawil. This territory is 60 miles wide and 20 miles deep, and it is mainly a sandy wasteland, though in ancient times it was the grazing lands for the Ababda tribal people. The name Bir Tawil means Deep Water Well, though the location of this obscure water well is now lost.
Early wireless documents tell us that the first wireless stations in Sudan were installed after World War 1 in Khartoum & Omdurman, and in several regional locations. Callsigns for these stations were irregular at first, though as time went by, it seems that these calls were regularized into the SU series, such as SUD at Port Sudan & SUL at Khartoum.
The Russian Encyclopedia informs us that radio broadcasting in the Sudan began in the year 1940, and this is confirmed by the Sudanradio website. According to this source, the first radio broadcasts were made from the Post Office building in Omdurman in May 1940. Programming was on the air for half an hour daily, and it would be presumed that this was on a mediumwave channel.
Two years later, the radio station was transferred to the Midwife School in West Omdurman, where the station was inaugurated on 524 metres (573 kHz) and the programming was extended to one hour daily. It is evident that this was still a low power operation.
Monitoring reports in New Zealand, Australia & the United States indicate that a shortwave service was added in late 1945, and this operated on 9220 & 13320 kHz. At the time, all three outlets were rated at quite low power; mediumwave 572.5 kHz at 750 watts, shortwave 9 MHz at 450 watts, and 13320 khz at 250 watts. Reliable coverage at these power levels would extend not much further than the twin cities areas.
In 1949, it was reported that Radio Omdurman in the Sudan was now using a 6 kW shortwave transmitter; and soon after that, three Marconi transmitters from England were installed; two at 20 kW for use on shortwave, and one at 50 kW on mediumwave. All of these transmitter improvements are listed as taking place at the transmitter base identified as Soba, which is located at a small village named Al Aitahab some distance up river, south of the twin cities. Two Philips shortwave transmitters at 120 kW from Holland were installed in the late 1960s, and one Harris at 100 kW from the United States was installed around 1990.
In the meantime, regional radio was developed in several different localities around Sudan, and of importance was a massive mediumwave transmitter rated at 1½ megawatt located at Sennar, out from the twin cities areas. Anything up to a dozen mediumwave sites in Sudan have been indicated, but it is not certain that stations were installed at all of these listed sites.
However, even in spite of this apparent wide coverage on shortwave and mediumwave throughout Sudan, there have been many occasions when transmitters were reported by monitors as being off air. On some occasions, throughout all of these years, the usage of shortwave, though listed as in use for program coverage, was also actually off the air.
So, what can you hear on air from the Sudan these days? If you live somewhere around the Mediterranean, you might hear Reiba with 600 kW on 1296 kHz; or Khartoum with 100 kW on 963 kHz; or possibly Omdurman with 50 kW on 765 kHz. Then, on shortwave, their programming is listed on 7200 kHz with 100 kW all throughout the broadcast day.
The Sudan has never been listed as a reliable verifier of reception reports, though throughout all these years, a few QSL letters have been issued.

Part 2
The world’s newest independent country is just 10 weeks old. It is a landlocked country in Africa surrounded by six other countries, and it has no coastal seaport of its own. This new country, currently known as South Sudan, was formed from the southern part of what was previously the combined country of Sudan.
The northern and central areas of South Sudan are described as wide sweeping plains, merging into tropical jungle regions in the south, with also a very large area of marshy swamplands. This new nation is divided into ten states within three major historic regions.
The total population of the new South Sudan is estimated at around 8 million, with somewhere around 200 different ethnic groups, with just about as many different languages. Their capital city is Juba, which is also their largest city, and it was previously the capital for the state of Equatoria under the combined Sudan.
It is stated that African tribes were already established in south Sudan a thousand years ago. European intervention began in 1896 when a colonial expedition from Belgium claimed regency in a major part of the area. However, three years later, England & Egypt claimed control of the total Sudan, and six years later again, Belgium transferred control of her claimed area to the British. Then it was just 10 weeks ago, on Saturday July 9, that the southern areas of Sudan were split off from the parent country, and this area became its own independent entity as South Sudan.
The earliest wireless stations in south Sudan were established a little before, and after, the international events of World War 1. At least four spark wireless stations were installed during that era: station WWR at Wau, AKR at Adobo, MLR at Malakal, and MGR at Mongalla.
The first radio broadcasting service for south Sudan began in 1961 as a series of radio programs that were on the air from the head office of the national broadcasting service in the northern twin cities, Khartoum/Omdurman. This daily series of radio programming was on the air for an hour each afternoon under the title in English, Program Service for South Sudan. At the time, no broadcasting stations were on the air in the territory now known as South Sudan, and in order to give coverage in the south, existing mediumwave and shortwave stations in the north carried this program relay.
The first known radio broadcasting station in the south was inaugurated as a regional station in January 1964, in the Equatoria state capital, Juba. According to the noted Arthur Cushen in New Zealand, this was a shortwave station with a rated output of just 1 kW, and it was assigned the 49 metre band channel 6075 kHz.
Radio Juba shortwave was on the air for just one hour daily in Arabic & English, with extra programming on Fridays & Sundays. Apparently this station survived for only a very short life span, as there are no known logging reports on the part of international radio monitors, and the station was never listed in the World Radio TV Handbook.
Beginning in the year 1990, the first of a total of at least nine irregular and clandestine radio broadcasting stations took to the air. Some of these stations were located in the area of south Sudan
or nearby, whereas others were on the air as a relay service from some of the large and well known international shortwave stations. Several of these clandestine stations are known to have changed their names on more than one occasion.
The first irregular station for south Sudan was inaugurated in the year 1990 and it was on the air under the identification announcement, the Voice of Sudan. This station pretended to be located at Kassala in south Sudan, whereas in reality it was actually located at Asmara in nearby Eritrea. This was a 10 kW transmitter heard on several channels over a period of time, usually in the 6 & 7 MHz region of the shortwave spectrum. This station has been off the air now for half a dozen years.
Interestingly, two different shortwave stations were located near Narus, in the Nuba Mountains of south Sudan. These two stations were located at less than one mile apart.
Station Radio Peace was inaugurated in January 2003 with two shortwave transmitters; a 1 kW unit, and another running at 4 kW. This station was closed six years later for transfer into the new national capital, Juba.
The other shortwave station near Narus in the Nubia Mountains was a political station known as the Voice of the New Sudan. A 50 kW Elcor transmitter from Costa Rica was installed and a three day series of test broadcasts was radiated with just 7 kW on 9310 kHz, beginning on July 19, 2004. However, a strike of lightning permanently disabled the station, though local personnel subsequently maintained the transmitter for possible future usage.
Beginning in November of the year 2000, a total of half a dozen international shortwave broadcasters have been on the air with programming beamed into what are now the two Sudans. The head office location of these stations has been in the United States, London, Holland & Kenya. The transmitter sites for these relay broadcasts have been Rimavska Sobota in Slovakia, on the island of Madagascar, and also from BBC shortwave transmitters in England and elsewhere.
Two of these program sources have been provided by USAID in the United States, two from the BBC in London, one from the United Nations, and another from a Christian organization in Holland. During the past eleven years, these program relays have been on the air shortwave for a few hours each day under station identifications, such as Radio Nile, Sudan Radio Service, and Radio Darfur & Radio Dabanga. Another radio service which is very popular in Sudan on FM, and which has also been on the air shortwave, is Radio Miraya; and the name Miraya means mirror in the local Arabic language.
(NWS 130 & 134 via Adrian Peterson)